1.) WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE : what does it mean?

Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School


The degree to which evidence convinces triers of fact to either accept or reject a factual assertion.  Sometimes, the phrase refers to the strength of a single piece of evidence.  At other times, the phrase refers to the whole set of evidence presented on an issue, such that the overall weight of the evidence can be said to favor one side or the other.




weight of evidence

the strength, value and believability of evidence presented on a factual 

issue by one side as compared to evidence introduced by the other side.




Measure of credible proof on one side of a dispute as compared with the credible proof on the other, particularly the Probative evidence considered by a judge or jury during a trial.

Hello, my name is Robin, and I am an Atheist and a former Christian. I have developed a unique approach to speaking with Christians about the Bible. The following example demonstrates this approach.

The following dialogue usually takes place (this is an example, based on my interaction with Christians. The name of the Christian in this example is "Chris").

Robin: Why do you think spiders build spider webs?"

Chris: They build webs in order to catch their prey.

Robin: I agree, and here is only one website that discusses this

very issue:


What do you think usually takes place after the spider catches it's prey?

Chris: It eats the insect.

Robin: Can you think of any other reason why a spider would build a web, other than to catch its prey? For example, do you think a spider would build a web, so that when an insect falls into the web, it would go over and help the insect out of the web?

Chris: Ha Ha Ha - No, I can not think of any other reason.

Robin: Do you think that if we were to find 100 different spider webs, and we were to monitor each web, and wait until the moment where an insect goes into the web, do you think the reaction by the spider would be a similiar reaction, in most cases? The reaction usually looks something like this (see below), correct?

Chris: Yes I agree, I think the reaction would be the same in most cases.

Robin: I think we agree on this point, so with that in mind, let's go to the next point, ok?

Chris: Sure, no problem.


The next question I ask is (again, in the form of a dialogue):

Robin: Chris, what do you believe is the central theme, or central message, of the New Testament?

Chris: I think the central message of the New Testament is that Jesus is our Saviour. He died for our sins, and was resurrected. He died so that all of us could, if we accept his free gift of salvation, have eternal life.

Robin: So, you believe that the main reason why Jesus lived was to die for us, so we would have a way to live forever with him, if we accept and believe in him?

Chris: Yes.

Robin; I think that what you just said seems to agree with the orthodox or most common view that is held by Christians. I think that the following links support your viewpoint:

"The message of the New Testament centers on (1) the Person who gave Himself for the remission of sins (Matt. 26:28) and (2) the people (the church) who have received His salvation. Thus the central theme of the New Testament is salvation."


"The first school suggests that the main message of the

Bible is the wonderful presentation of salvation. The good

news of salvation in Jesus Christ is the fundamental

message of the Scripture"


"The teaching about Jesus Christ and the salvation that God in His love has prepared

in Christ is the central message of the Bible."


Freedom from this defect requires two things. First, you must receive the gift of eternal life, which can be obtained right now by receiving the person of the Lord Jesus Christ. Second, you must know that God loves you supremely -- even more than you love yourself.



Robin: Chris, The next point I like to stress is the "why" part of all of the above. Another words, why do we need a Savior?

The Bible says in Genesis, chapter 3, that man sinned, and this took place in the Garden of Eden. The following links provide more information about the event that took place.


What is the Adamic nature?

The Adamic nature is a result of the curse of the Fall of Adam that has plagued the human

family since God created man. The Adamic nature stems from the "Original Sin" committed in

the Garden of Eden. Every man, woman, and child on planet Earth is born with it. Jesus came

to rid man from it. Glory!

Original sin, also called ancestral sin, is the Christian doctrine of humanity's state of sin

resulting from the fall of man, stemming from Adam's rebellion in Eden.

This condition has been characterized in many ways, ranging from something as insignificant as a sleight deficiency or a tendency toward sin yet

without collective guilt, referred to as a "sin nature" to something as drastic as total depravity or automatic guilt of all humans through collective guilt.


Original sin is the doctrine which holds that human nature has been morally and ethically

corrupted due to the disobedience of mankind's first parents to the revealed will of God. In the

Bible, the first human transgression of God's command is described as the sin of Adam and Eve

in the Garden of Eden resulting in what theology calls the Fall of mankind. The doctrine of

original sin holds that every person born into the world is tainted by the Fall such that all of

humanity is ethically debilitated, and people are powerless to rehabilitate themselves, unless

rescued by God.


I continue in my dialogue with Chris:

Robin: It is clear, from the sources shown above, and from the Bible's message, that man sinned in the Garden of Eden. This caused a separation between God and humanity. After Adam and Eve sinned, every person thereafter would be born into a state of "corruption". Adam represents the fall of man, and Christ represents salvation. Would you agree Chris?

Chris: Yes, I agree with everything you have sited so far.

 4) The Animal and Insect Kingdom.

Robin: According to the Bible, Genesis 1:29, God made man, originally, as a herbivore:

27 So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them;
male and female he created them.

28 God blessed them and said to them, "Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground."

29 Then God said, "I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food.

The Bible says that before Adam and Eve had sinned, they were herbivores. In fact, many Christians are unaware that this also extended to the land animals, flying animals, and insects; they too were all originally created as herbivores. Chris, had you ever been aware of this?

Chris: No, I never knew that.

Robin: Yes, the Bible says in Genesis 1, verse 30:

" And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so."

According to the Bible, God created animals and insects on the same day, but before he created man. The Bible says, in Chapter 1, verses 24 and 25:

24 " And God said, "Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: the livestock, the creatures that move along the ground, and the wild animals, each according to its kind." And it was so. 25 God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good." (NIV version)

A little later, in verses 26 & 27 of Genesis, it describes the point in time when God created man:

26 "Then God said, "Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground." 27 So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them;
male and female he created them."

So this means that God created the land animals, flying animals, and insects, and this took place some time before he created man. Man was created on the same day, but sometime after all of this had took place. Would you agree with that Chris?

Chris: Sounds about right to me so far.

 5) The Chronology of Adam - WHEN DID HE LIVE?

Robin: Chris, the Bible gives a pretty accurate idea of how long ago it was that Adam was created. If you go to the book of Genesis, it shows Adams genealogy, starting with the first generation, and going through to each generation, up to the birth of Abram. I would now like to show you some of the information that shows the name of each Father and Son, and how old each Father was at the time each son was born. I made a list of each consecutive generation. All of the following figures are an estimate, not something I claim  is 100% accurate, but for the sake of discussion, I think my estimates will do well to make my point valid.

Here is the genealogy list:

GENERATION                                 NAME OF                  NAME OF                            AGE OF FATHER AT TIME 

          #                                              FATHER                    SON                                    OF CHILDS BIRTH

1                                                        ADAM                       SETH                                                  130

2                                                        SETH                         ENOSH                                              105

3                                                        ENOSH                     CAINAN                                                90

4                                                        CAINAN                    MAHALALLEL                                      70

5                                                        MAHALALLEL           JARED                                                   65

6                                                        JARED                        ENOCH                                              162

7                                                        ENOCH                     METHUSELAH                                     65

8                                                        METHUSELAH          LAMECH                                            187

9                                                        LAMECH                   NOAH                                                 182

10                                                      NOAH                       SHEM                                                  502

11                                                      SHEM                       ARPHAXAD                                         100

12                                                      ARPHAXAD             SALAH                                                    35

13                                                      SALAH                     EBER                                                       30

14                                                      EBER                        PELEG                                                     34

15                                                      PELEG                      REU                                                         30

16                                                      REU                          SERUG                                                    32

17                                                      SERUG                     NAHOR                                                   30

18                                                      NAHOR                    TERAH                                                     29

19                                                     TERAH                      ABRAM                                                   130 


                                                              TOTAL # OF YEARS from ADAM to birth of ABRAM:   2008

Robin: So, the Bible says that, from the time of Adam becoming the Father of Seth, all the way to the time where Abram was born, a total of 2008 years went by, through a total of 19 generations. Does the above appear to be an accurate list to you?

Chris: Everything seems to match up with what the Bible says.

Robin: Ok, good, now when Abram was 99 years old, his name was changed to Abraham. This takes place in Gen. 17:5. " No longer will you be called Abram; your name will be Abraham, for I have made you a father of many nations." Do you agree?

Chris: Yes, I agree

Robin: Now Chris, if we go to the New Testament, we can pick up where Abraham left off in the Old Testament. The New testament, in the book of Matthew, gives us some information about the passing of time, starting with Abraham, and going through to 42 generations. ACCORDING TO MATTHEW, CH. 1: 2-17, FROM ABRAHAM TO DAVID IS 14 GENERATIONS

So, the next question is, how many years passed from the birth of Abraham to the birth of David. The birth of David took place 14 generations later. When I go to this point in my studies, I realized that this part of the genealogy was a little tricky to calculate, because it says "14 generations" but does not come straight out and give the number of years from one point to another. Based on what I could gather, this time period was approximately a total of 911 years.  This figure, added to the date which marked when Abraham was born would be listed as:

2008 + 911 = 2919

The next question is, how many years passed from the birth of David to the end of the Captivity in Babylon. Here again, the Bible merely says that 14 generations passed from one point to the next. Again, based on what I could gather, this time period seems to be a period of about 497 years.

2919 + 497 = 3416                                          

(above information was taken from the following sources):




From the Captivity to the birth of Jesus. B.C. 588-4, or 584 years

3416 + 584 = 4000 years from birth of Abram to birth of Jesus.

Chris, does this seem to agree with what you have seen so far?

Chris: Yes, I agree.

                 TIME FROM CHRISTS DEATH TO NOW IS    2016 YEARS

                 TOTAL NUMBER OF YEARS FROM ADAM TO NOW         =             4000 + 32 + 2016 = 6048 YEARS

 6) The Bible vs. Science

Robin: Chris, from all of the above information, it seems that Adam was born about 6048 years ago, or he was born in 4032 B.C.  Remember, Adam represented the fall of man, which took place in the Garden of Eden. Prior to the fall of man, Adam and Eve, as well as the animals, flying animals, and insects, all were herbivores. It was only after man had sinned, did man begin to eat meat. It is clearly indicated by the bible that, after Adam and Eve sinned, every living creature thereafter would be born into "corruption" and would be held accountable by God, for the events that led to the fall of man.

The next question is, approximately what point in time was it that man began to eat meat? The Bible tells us the approximate time this conversion from being herbivorous to carnivorous took place. If you read the Bible, starting with the first chapter of Genesis, and move forward, there is not a single incidence of where any man eats meat.

When you get to the 9th Chapter of Genesis, this changes. Gen. 9:2-3 says,

2)  The fear and dread of you will fall on all the beasts of the earth, and on all the birds in the sky, on every creature that moves along the ground, and on all the fish in the sea; they are given into your hands. 

3) Everything that lives and moves about will be food for you. Just as I gave you the green plants, I now give you everything.

This means that up to this point in time, using a strict intrepretation of the bible, every human who was alive prior to this particular point in time was still a herbivore. According to this verse, it is here that God allows man to become carnivores.  Notice that this verse mentions man, it makes no mention of animals, birds, and insects. It is interesting to note that the first instance of one animal eating another animal, post-flood, is not found until Genesis 15:11"... And when the vultures came down on the carcasses, Abram drove them away..." This is something that took place at least 425 years after the flood, since Abram was at least 75 years old  (Genesis 12:4 - "...and Abram was seventy-five years old when he departed from Haran...") at the time of this event. 

Now, there may be Christians who disagree with the above strict intrepretation. Some Christians may say that the conversion from herbivore to carnivore, as it applies to man,  took place immediately after the fall of man, even though the bible does not specifically point to any specific events to support this view. If you accept this view, then you will run into a bit of a problem once you get to the 9th Chapter of Genesis. If man immediately became carnivorous after the incident in the Garden of Eden, then the account in Genesis, Chapter 9: 2-3, becomes redundant. Chris, in my interpretation of all of the above, it seems that the account in Chapter 9 of Genesis seems to clarify the issue. I would arrive at a conclusion that the conversion, as it applies to man, did not take place until Chapter 9 of Genesis. Chris, would you agree to that?

Chris: Yes, I agree.

Robin: Ok, now here is where we can expand on the issue, and examine it more thoroughly.  If man did not become carnivorous, according to the verses in Genesis 9:2-3, at approximately what time would this have been? If you look at the chart above, notice that Adam was 130 years old at the time he fathered Seth. If you add the totals for the next consecutive years, you will reach a total of 926 years from the birth of Seth to the birth of Noah. The flood took place, according to the bible, at the time Noah was 600 years old. This means that a total of at least 1526 years (926 + 600 = 1526) passed from the time of the fall of man to the time of the flood. There are  problems with this intrepretation if you choose to accept the bible for what it is saying in the above verses. What is the problem?  If God is speaking to Noah and his family,  according to what we have just seen, this discussion in Genesis 9 illustrates that the conversion, as it applies to man, from herbivores to carnivores was not an immediate conversion: In the case of man, and according to the bible, it took place approximately 1500 years after the fall of man. This means that, according to the bible, man did not begin to eat meat until only about 5000 years ago. (This estimate is based on the above figures shown in the chart and on the bible verses found in Genesis chapter 9. It is an approximate number, current as of the year 2016). This is a direct conflict to overwhelming evidence which shows that humans have been eating meat, using very conservative estimates, for at least 10,000 years.  A few support links are shown below, and these links are a very small sample of what  information can be found with even a conservative effort. 




What about animals and their status in relation to the fall of man?  IT IS HERE WE CAN RAISE A SECOND MAJOR QUESTION: Are animals sinful too, and why do animals have to suffer, according to the Bible?

It is clearly indicated by the bible that, after Adam and Eve sinned, every living creature thereafter would be born into  "corruption" . According to the Bible, it seems that Adam represented all mankind, including the animal and insect kingdoms. When Adam sinned, all of the animals, birds, and insects in the world were affected by it. Through Adam, sin entered the world (Romans 5:12), and the consequesces of sin extended to all living creatures. In other words, the fall of man brought consequences that affected all creatures on a similiar basis, and God did not show any reservations to any particular creature, or allow any category of creature to remain in a condition of immunity as a result of mans disobedience in the Garden of Eden.

There may be some Christians who raise a secondary issue. They might say that the animals were  not dying for anyone's sins. They simply were a type of sacrifice. Even if this were the case, (and it probably is not the case, because the bible makes no mention of sacrificing  many animals, and also makes no references to sacrificing insects)  the scriptures clearly indicate, no matter which chronological viewpoint is taken, that the fall of man led to the corruption of every living creature. In relation to man, and to some animals,  a second transition must have also occured, because man, and some animals,  are obviously omnivores, and have the ability to consume both meat and herbs.  (hmmm, sounds kinda like evolution).

Robin: Ok Chris, the next thing I would like to go over with you is a few pieces of scientific research that has recently taken place. This research relates to fossils, specifically of the amber variety.

The first source I want to share is from a February 2016 issue of Nature Plants

Here is the original website link:


The BBC News did a report on the findings: here is part of that related report and also the  BBC News link:


Extinct plant species discovered in amber

15 February 2016

Biologists have described a new species of extinct plant, based on two fossil flowers that were trapped in chunks of amber for at least 15 million years.

Strychnos electri belongs to the genus whose tropical shrubs, trees and vines are famous for producing the deadly toxin strychnine.

The US researchers named it after the Greek word for amber ("elektron") - the fossilised resin of long-dead trees.

Their discovery appears in the journal Nature Plants.

The two flowers were among 500 fossils collected on a 1986 field trip by Professor George Poinar of Oregon State University.

Prof Poinar is a renowned entomologist and most of these specimens were insects. But after nearly 30 years working on the bugs, his eye settled on the flowers.

Robin: Chris, these next 2 articles talk about the stability of Amber as it relates to the dating process. These articles do not just apply to the amber above, but to all amber in general. One of them is a PDF file, which will lead you to an external link.


Amber Does Not Act Its Age


Published 22 April 2014

110-million-year-old amber samples surprisingly retain the same thermodynamic properties as much younger amorphous solids.

Authors & Affiliations

Tomás Pérez-Castañeda1, Rafael J. Jiménez-Riobóo2, and Miguel A. Ramos1,*

1Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC) and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain

2Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMM-CSIC), E-28049 Madrid, Spain



Two-Level Systems and Boson (1).pdf Two-Level Systems and Boson (1).pdf
Size : 1025.446 Kb
Type : pdf

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.165901

Published 22 April 2014

Received 7 February 2014

© 2014 American Physical Society

Physics Synopsis

Two-Level Systems and Boson Peak Remain Stable in 110-Million-Year-Old Amber Glass

Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 165901 – Published 22 April 2014

Tomás Pérez-Castañeda, Rafael J. Jiménez-Riobóo, and Miguel A. Ramos

The two most prominent and ubiquitous features of glasses at low temperatures, namely the presence of tunneling two-level systems and the so-called boson peak in the reduced vibrational density of states, are shown to persist essentially unchanged in highly stabilized glasses, contrary to what was usually envisaged. Specifically, we have measured the specific heat of 110 million-year-old amber samples from El Soplao (Spain), both at very low temperatures and around the glass transition Tg. In particular, the amount of two-level systems, assessed at the lowest temperatures, was surprisingly found to be exactly the same for the pristine hyperaged amber as for thesubsequently, partially and fully rejuvenated samples.


Robin: Chris, do you remember in the beginning of our conversation, I asked you the question about spiders? I said, "Why do you think spiders build spider webs?"

You answered, "They build webs in order to catch their prey." Remember?

Chris: Yes, I remember.

Robin: Ok Chris, now I want to focus on the insects, since my original question is related to this area of study. I want to show you some information I have seen from the internet. It talks about some of the work that has been done by paleontologists and scientists. The first piece of information I want to share with you was an article which ran in the Thursday, October 28, 2010 ISSUE OF National Geographic magazine. Here is a clip of that story, along with the link:


Oldest Known Spiderweb Found in Ancient Amber

"The oldest known fragment of spiderweb has been found entombed in a piece of 110-million-year-old Spanish amber, scientists announced today. The fossil web was found complete with several entangled insects and other small creatures."

Robin: Here is a photo of the amber that was found.

Robin: I know there is a lot that could be said about this photo, but I want to talk about the 110 million date. This is the approximate age that scientists say the amber is. If what scientists are saying about the age of the amber is correct, it means that this amber precedes Adam, by several million years. It is a spider web, complete with insects found in the web.

Chris: Maybe the insects fell into the web.

Robin: Maybe. Maybe not. I want to show you another article I found online. It comes from the sources found below. I provide the links again, along with part of the article: 

This is a spider, which was encased in tree sap while in the act of attacking a wasp. The sap turned to amber, leaving an incredible preserved scene, with even individual strands of silk from the spider's web remaining unbroken for 100 million years.




Robin: Chris, not only is this a fossil, but the most dramatic thing about it is that the photo gives us a "snapshot" of an event that  took place, of an encounter between a spider and a wasp. The photo is quite unique, and is a one of a kind discovery. It is very unique for several reasons. The spider and wasp are so well preserved, you can actually see the hairs on the spiders legs, as well as the venation (vein pattern) on the wings of the wasp.You can also see part of the web strands. Here is the photo of the amber the scientists found.

Drum roll please.

Here is a short video about the fossil that was found:

I think that what is especially interesting,  something very obvious about this fossil is the positioning of the spider in relation to the wasp. The position  demonstrates one thing very clearly: INTENT.  The most damning thing about this fossil, damning to young earth creationists, is the remains of an intact web. As you answered earlier, the only reason you are aware of for why a spider would build a web is to catch their prey. If what the Bible says is correct, this fossil can not be more than about 5000 years old. There is a vast difference between  5000 years and 100 million years. The other possibility is that this fossil predates Adam. And by the way, both the spider and the wasp in the fossil are now an extinct species. Chris, what do you think about all of this?

Chris: I am not sure what to think.

Chris, the reason I am bringing all of this information in front of you is because, if this information is correct, it definitely  presents a big problem to the general view that is presented in the book of Genesis. If the account in the book of Genesis is correct, we should not be able to find any evidence of insects eating other insects that predate the account described in the garden of Eden. But the findings above clearly and decisively  show exactly this taking place. If the evidence I am presenting here is correct, it means that there is a contradiction between the scientific evidence, and the Bible, because the Bible says that animals and insects did not consume each other until AFTER the fall of man.  This, in itself, presents a major dilemma to young earth creationists, because if it is correct, it means that it violates the central theme of the New Testament, the idea that the "Original Sin" committed in the Garden of Eden, resulting in every man, woman, child, animal, and insect on planet Earth, would be the result of the fall of man, stemming from Adam's rebellion in Eden. This can not be the case, if the above scientific findings are correct.

Furthermore, if we examine the "totality" of the above information,it leads to a conclusion that is quite different that the one taught by orthodox Christianity.  Orthodox Christianity teaches the following:

1) God created Adam & Eve.

2) Adam & Eve, due to their sin, went against God's will.

3) Adam & Eve were punished for their actions.

4) All of the decendants of Adam & Eve (and also including the animal & insect kingdom) fell into corruption.

5) Christ was sent so that man would have a means to be saved from the corruptive state he had fell into.

If you look at the above, each event is contingent on each other. If any one or more of the events is removed, the "chain of events" is broken. So, based on the evidence, I would conclude that since the evidence points to the conclusion that both animals and insects were already carnivorous BEFORE the alleged fall of man, the fall of man did not occur as claimed in the Bible, which means that man did not fall, and since man did not fall, it means that there is no need for a Saviour. It means that the entire central theme of the New testament becomes a null issue.

Chris, there are a couple other things I would like to bring to your attention. The young earth creationists say that the Bible tells us of a global catastrophic event, the Flood of Noah’s day, about 4,500 years ago. The flood is supposedly the reason why we find billions of fossils in sedimentary rock worldwide. But if what they are saying is correct, it means that Noah and his family would have probably witnessed dinosaurs walking around at the time they lived, maybe even at the time they were loading up the Arc, because the flood took place after he had entered the Arc.

An interesting question to ask here is: should we see at least some of them today (or at least some of their relatives) since that was supposedly only about 4500 years ago, according to young earth creationists? {MAYBE WE DO SEE THEIR RELATIVES TODAY, BUT THAT WOULD MEAN "EVOLUTION" WAS TAKING PLACE IF THEY WERE ONLY RELATIVES}. What do you think Chris?

If Adam and his family witnessed dinosaurs at the same time they lived,  it opens the door to another question. Did Noah load any dinosaurs onto the Arc with him if there actually were dinosaurs walking around at that time? Take note that if what the Bible is saying was actually correct, dinosaurs at that time were carnivores, because the flood takes place long AFTER the Fall of Man. Prior to the Fall of Man, the dinosaurs were herbivores. Here again, we should not be able to find any evidence of carnivorous dinosaurs that predate the Fall of Man. 

With that thought in mind, the next article is about a discovery that was made by scientists, another unique fossil that was found. Here is the photo and the links, along with a part of the article:




University of Alberta researchers found evidence that a feathered, but flightless dinosaur was able to snag and consume small flying dinosaurs. This dinosaur lived during the EARLY CRETACEOUS PERIOD: 144-127 million years ago.

Holotype of Sinocalliopteryx gigas [Credit: Xing et al., Abdominal Contents from Two Large Early Cretaceous Compsognathids (Dinosauria: Theropoda) Demonstrate Feeding on Confuciusornithids and Dromaeosaurids. PLoS ONE, 2012; 7 (8): e44012 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044012]

"The U of A paleontology team found the fossilized remains of three flying dinosaurs in the belly of a raptor-like predator called Sinocalliopteryx. Sinocalliopteryx was about two meters in length and roughly the size of a modern-day wolf. Sinocalliopteryx's flying meals were three Confuciusornis. Confuciusornis was one of the earliest birds and had a crude version of a modern bird's skeleton and muscles. The researchers say such primitive birds were probably limited to slow take-offs and short flights. According to the researchers, this is the first time a predator has been linked to the killing of multiple flying dinosaurs."

The diagrams below show enhanced photos of the abdominal contents. 

Abdominal contents of Sinocalliopteryx gigas (CAGS-IG-T1).

A, B; block containing Confuciusornis (blue) and unidentified ornithischian (red) remains. C, Close up of Confuciusornis sternal and pectoral elements (small box in B); D, E; associated skeleton of Confuciusornis (large box in B); F, proximal Confuciusornishumerus (arrow in Figure 2). Abbreviations: C, carpal; Dr, dorsal rib; Fu, furcula; Gs, gastralia; H, humerus; Il, ilium; Is, ischium; Mu, manual ungula; Ms, miscellaneous ornithischian bone; Ph, phalanx; Pu, pubis; Ra, radius; Sc, scapulocoracoid; St, sternum. Scale bars in A, B equal 10 cm in 1 cm increments; C, F in 1 mm increments.



Robin: Ok Chris. I want to share with you one more final bit of information I have been studying about lately. Are you familiar with a scientific theory related to "continental drift"?

Chris: Yes, I think I have heard about it. Isn't that where they say that at one time, there was one big giant landmass, but it broke apart and is now drifting away from each other?

Robin: You got it. In 1915, the German geologist and meteorologist Alfred Wegener first proposed the theory of continental drift, which states that parts of the Earth's crust slowly drift atop a liquid core.

Wegener hypothesized that there was a gigantic supercontinent 200 million years ago, which he named Pangaea, meaning "All-earth". Here are a few visual aides I found on the web, along with the link.


Ok Chris, let's say just for the sake of argument that what Wegener said is correct. It would mean that, as part of the theory,  the continents we now know as Africa and South America were once joined, but split apart, and started to drift away from each other. If what the Bible says is correct, the Earth was created no more than about 6500 years ago. What does that imply if it is correct?

Let's start by using an approximate figure of how old the earth is: Let's use two values to represent the earths age. The first value we will use is 6500 years, which is the approximate age that the Bible says the earth is at this time. We will call it "value A". The other value will be designated as "x years", this being the value that scientists say about how old they think the earth may be. We will call it "value x". 

Starting with the idea that Africa and South America were once joined, and calculating how far apart they are from each other at the present time is not too difficult. All you need to do is go to a map and plot out two points on a map. The first thing to do is look at modern day Africa and South America, and then locate two points, one on each continent, to represent a value that we can use in a mathematical calculation.

If you look at the maps below, it shows a map of modern day Africa and S. America:

According to the theory of Plate Tectonics, the two above land masses were once joined along modern day Brazil and the Ghana-Nigeria-Cameroon-Gabon coastline in East Africa. One of the most eastern cities in Brazil is Recife, and one of the most western cities along the African coastline is Douala, located in Cameroon. The distance between these two points is about 3180 miles. I used the online tool (link) below to calculate this distance.


These two points are roughly the areas that may have once been connected to each other. If what the theory says is correct, they were once connected to each other. If the Bible is correct about the approximate age of the earth, it means that, assuming the theory is also correct, they were joined about 6500 years ago.  If you use the figures above, you will be able to use these two figures to arrive at an estimate of how fast the two points have been moving apart from each other. Remember that the shortest distance between two  points is a straight line. The following example DOES NOT take into account the idea that when the continents began to drift apart from each other, they did not drift apart from each other in a perfect straight line. They would have drifted apart in a random series of directions.  So, the following example is actually giving the benefit of the doubt to the young earth creationists by assuming that they drifted apart in a straight line. The figures shown are very conservative. In reality, the correct answer is probably going to be a much LONGER period of time, not a shorter time. That being said,  I want to share with you some calculations, based on the idea that if what the Bible says is correct, will lead us into big dilemma. If we want to know how fast, for example, the two land masses have been floating apart from each other per year, we can use the following equation:

3180 (miles) / 6500 (years) = 0.48923076923 miles per year, or roughly about 1/2 mile per year. This 1/2 mile per year represents "Value A".

For "Value B" we can use the figure that is currently being proposed by scientists about how old they think the earth was at the time the land masses occurred, which is said to be about 200 million years ago.

Using the same equation, we would see this:

3180 (miles) / 210,000,000 =  0.00001514285 miles per year, or roughly about 2.4 cm per year.

Chris, when I did a search on Ask.com, and entered the phrase "how fast is the continental drift" I found figures ranging from 2cm (lowest)  to 15 cm (highest) per year. Chris, do you know how fast this rate of speed is?

Chris:No, please tell me.

Robin: It is approximately as fast as a persons fingernails grow in a year!!!

Just for fun, and out of curiosity,  I checked the Guinness Book of World Records.  Shridhar Chillal (born 1938), a retired Indian photographer,  holds the world record for the longest fingernails ever reached on a single hand, measuring 6.15 meters (20 feet 2.25 inches). Chillal's longest nail is 1.30 meters (4.25 feet). He started growing his nails in 1952. I would say that if he wants to get his nails to reach a half mile long, he has got a lot of catching up to do!!!

Based on all of the above data, I would say that the value of "x" much more closely fits the data that would probably  be closer to the correct value. I would personally consider Value A as being so far out of the realm of possible options that it is not even worth arguing about.

Chris, I do have to go now. It has been a pleasure speaking with you today. I hope that the information I have shown to you will help you to make a more informed, educated decision. I hope you will "weigh the evidence" and then come to decision about all of the issues we have discussed.  If you have any questions, or would like to make any comments about any of the information I have presented to you, please feel free to do so. I can be contacted  at the following

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